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INTRODUCTION

Activities:

Antityrosinase, antihyperglycemic,1,2 antitumorigenic,3 anti-inflammatory,3 antiypyretic,3 antioxidant,3,4 antiatherogenic,4 antimicrobial,5 chemopreventive,5 neuroprotective5

Important Chemical Components:

Morus alba: Mulberroside F (the phytoalexin moracin M-6, 3’-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), mulberroside A, various polyphenols, including moracetin, rutin, isoquercitrin, gallic acid, quercetin 3-(6-malonylglucoside), and astragalin,1,4 oxyresveratrol (the aglycone of mulberroside A),6 and fatty acids (e.g., linoleic and palmitic)7

Morus australis: Oxyresveratrol, multiple chalcones, austraone A, moracenin D, sanggenon T, and kuwanon O8

Morus nigra: Mulberroside A, 5’-geranyl-5,7,2’,4’-tetrahydroxyflavone, steppogenin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, morachalcone A, 2,4,2’,4’-tetrahydroxychalcone, moracin N, kuwanon H, mulberrofuran G, morachalcone A, oxyresveratrol-3’-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and oxyresveratrol-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside9

Morus notabilis: Moracin O, moracin P10

Morus papyrifera (or Broussonetia papyrifera): Prenylated, polyhyrdroxylated mono- and bis-phenyl derivatives, flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin), linoleic acid, methyl palmitate, oleic acid, linoleic acid ester, and diterpenes (three different broussonetones)11,12

Origin Classification:

Natural components isolated from various Moraceae species

Personal Care Category:

Depigmenting

Recommended for the following Baumann Skin Types:

DRPT, DRPW, DSPT, DSPW, ORPT, ORPW, OSPT, and OSPW

SOURCE

The family Moraceae, which is native to eastern Asia, is the source of multiple species of deciduous trees associated with skin-lightening activity, including Morus alba, Morus australis, Morus Nigra, Morus notabilis, and Morus papyrifera. Moraceae are fast-growing perennial trees that now are cultivated in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates.5 The fruits of these trees are consumed throughout the world and various parts of the plants have been and continue to be used in traditional medicine.

The genus Broussonetia, a member of the Moraceae family and closely related to the genus Morus, is found throughout Asia and the Pacific Islands.11 Broussonetia papyrifera (also known as Morus papyrifera and, commonly, as paper mulberry) is a deciduous tree native to eastern Asia. Its bark is used for making high-quality paper, but other parts of the tree have been used in traditional medicine and such uses continue today.

HISTORY

The leaves of Morus alba are an important source of nutrition for the silkworm (Bombyx mori).1,3,5,13 Therapeutic uses of the leaves, bark, and branches for human beings have long been found in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).4,11,14 M. alba has been deployed in TCM as a wind-heat-effusing agent.15 In addition, various parts of several Moraceae species have been used in TCM to treat tinea, dysentery, hernia, and edema.11 Ayurvedic medicine has also employed this herb to treat diarrhea, intestinal ulcers, small pox, back pain, vocal cord inflammation, and cutaneous cracks on the soles of the feet.3 From a global finance perspective, mulberry is one of the most important plants in the economy of India.5 The roots, barks, and stems of Morus australis have also been long used in traditional Japanese medicine (known as Kampo) to treat diabetes and arthritis.16 In China, the leaves, stem, leaf juice, ...

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