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Acquired hypothyroidism is a potential complication of

A. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma

B. Multiple or diffuse hepatic hemangiomas

C. PHACE syndrome

D. Solitary cutaneous infantile hemangioma

E. None of these

B. Complications of multifocal and diffuse liver hemangiomas include acquired hypothyroidism due to hemangioma expression of type III thyronine deiodinase.

A 2-month-old infant presents with a segmental, facial infantile hemangioma located in a “beard” distribution, including the lower lip. Which of the following are potential complications?

A. Airway hemangioma

B. Cardiovascular anomalies

C. Cerebrovascular anomalies

D. Ulceration

E. All of these

E. Segmental hemangiomas, especially when located in trauma-prone locations such as the lip, are at higher risk of ulceration. Segmental hemangiomas of the face are also at risk for PHACE syndrome, of which cerebrovascular and cardiovascular anomalies are the most common complications. Lastly, segmental hemangiomas in a “beard” facial distribution have a known association with concomitant airway hemangioma.

An otherwise healthy 2-month-old infant is started on oral propranolol for a painful, ulcerated hemangioma of her perineum that has not responded adequately to standard wound care. Which of the following is the most serious potential side effect of propranolol to consider?

A. Bronchospasm

B. Hyperkalemia

C. Hypoglycemia

D. Hypothyroidism

E. Gastrointestinal complications

C. Potential side effects of oral propranolol include hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia, bronchospasm, congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal complications, sleep disturbance, cool or mottled extremities, hyperkalemia, rash or dry skin, depression, dental caries, and drug interactions due to metabolism within cytochrome P450 system. Of these, hypoglycemia may be most serious potential complication, usually related to decreased oral intake or an overnight fast.

Which of the following features help distinguish a glomuvenous malformation from classic venous malformation?

A. Autosomal dominant inheritance

B. Nodular, cobblestone-like appearance

C. Pain with compression

D. Poor compressibility

E. All of these

E. Classic venous malformations are most commonly inherited sporadically, and present as soft, deep-blue, nontender masses ...

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