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Bacterial and viral infections are frequently associated with a rash and fever in children. Many of these rashes have known etiologies and characteristic features. Recognizing the pattern of the rash, and identifying key points in the history can help to establish the diagnosis. In Table 27-1, a number of pediatric exanthems are summarized, as well as some other rashes associated with fever. Most exanthems are self-limited and resolve in 7 to 10 days and only symptomatic treatment is needed.

Table 27-1.Differential diagnosis of fever and rash.

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