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AA: acne aestivalis/aggressive angiomyxoma/alopecia areata, secondary amyloid A

AAD: acroangiodermatitis

AATD: alpha–1–antitrypsin deficiency

ACC: adenoid cystic carcinoma

ACD: allergic contact dermatitis/angiokeratoma corporis diffusum

AEPS: acquired elastosis perforans serpiginosa

AFH: angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma

AFX: acral fibromyxoma/atypical fibroxanthoma

AGEP: acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

AHE: acute infantile hemorrhagic edema

AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AITL: angioimmunoblastic T–cell lymphoma

AJCC: American Joint Commission on Cancer

AK: actinic keratosis

ALM: acral lentiginous melanoma

AM: alopecia mucinosa

AMFH: angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma

AML: acute myeloid/myelogenous leukemia/angiomyolipoma

AMMoL: acute myelomonocytic leukemia

APC: acquired perforating collagenosis

APL: acquired progressive lymphangioma

APLEXSCT: atypical plexiform spindle cell tumor

APSCT: atypical pigmented spindle cell tumor

ARCI: autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis

ARMS: alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

ASF: actinic superficial folliculitis

AST: angiomatosis of soft tissue/atypical Spitz tumor

ATLL: adult T–cell leukemia/lymphoma

AVL: atypical vascular lesion

AVM: arteriovenous malformation



BA: bacillary angiomatosis

BADAS: bowel–associated dermatosis– arthritis syndrome

BAP: benign atrophic papulosis

BAP1: BRCA1 (breast cancer 1) associated protein 1

BCL2: B-cell lymphoma 2 protein

BCL6: B-cell lymphoma 6 protein

B-CLL: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, B–cell types

BEC: blood vessel endothelial cell

BFH: basaloid follicular hamartoma

BLAP: benign lymphangiomatous papule after radiotherapy

BMG: benign migratory glossitis

BMM: benign mucinous metaplasia

BMZ: basement membrane zone

BP: bullous pemphigoid

BPAG1: bullous pemphigoid antigen 1

BPAG2: bullous pemphigoid antigen 2

BPDCN: blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm

BRBNS: blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome



CALM: café–au–lait macule

CAMPS: CARD14–mediated psoriasis

CANDLE: chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature

CAPS: cryopyrin–associated periodic syndrome

CAT: cutaneovisceral angiomatosis with thrombocytopenia

CBCL: cutaneous B–cell lymphoma

CBN: cellular blue nevus

CCA: clear cell acanthoma

CCCA: central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia CD30+ LPD: CD30 positive lymphoproliferative disorder

CEAN: cutaneous epithelioid angiomatous nodule

CG: cheilitis glandularis

CGD-TCL: cutaneous ?/?+ T–cell lymphoma

CGH: comparative genomic hybridization

CH: composite hemangioendothelioma

CHILD syndrome: congenital hemidysplasia, ichthyosiform erythroderma, limb defects

ChIP-seq: chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with high–throughput sequencing

CL: cutaneous lymphoma

CM: capillary malformation/conjunctival melanoma/cutaneous mastocytosis

CM-AVM: capillary malformation– arteriovenous malformation

C-MIN: conjunctival melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia

CML: chronic myeloid leukemia

CMMoL: chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

CMN: congenital melanocytic nevi

CMTC: cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita

CMV: cytomegalovirus

COA: condyloma acuminata

CP: cicatricial pemphigoid

CSIN: conjunctival squamous intraepithelial neoplasia

CTCL: cutaneous T–cell lymphomas

ctDNA: circulating free tumor DNA

CUA: calcific uremic arteriolopathy

CVV: cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy



DADA2: deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2

DCM: diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis/melanosis

DCS: dissecting cellulitis of the scalp

DDA: diffuse dermal angiomatosis

DDD: Dowling–Degos disease

DDL: dedifferentiated liposarcoma

DEB: dominant epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica

DFSP: dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

DGGE: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

DH: dermatitis herpetiformis

DIF: direct immunofluorescence

DIRA: deficiency of interleukin 1 antagonist

DLE: discoid lupus erythematosus

DLSO: distal lateral subungual onychomycosis

DM: desmoplastic melanoma

DNIEMD: de novo intraepidermal epithelioid melanocytic dysplasia

DPA: digital papillary adenocarcinoma

dPIN: differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia

DPN: deep–penetrating nevus

DPW: dilated pore of Winer

DRESS syndrome: drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms

DTE: desmoplastic trichoepithelioma

DTGCT: diffuse–type giant cell tumor

dVIN: differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia



EAC: erythema annulare centrifugum

EAH: eccrine angiomatous hamartoma

EBA: epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

EBV: Epstein-Barr virus

EC: epidermoid cyst

ECD: Erdheim–Chester disease

EF: eosinophilic folliculitis

EGPA: eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

EH: epithelioid hemangioma

EHE: epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

EMPD: extramammary Paget disease

EM: erythema multiforme

EMPSGC: endocrine mucin–producing sweat gland carcinoma

EMA: epithelial membrane antigen

EVHC: eruptive vellus hair cyst



FCH: folliculosebaceous cystic hamartoma

FDE: fixed drug eruption

FISH: fluorescence in situ hybridization

FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate

FM: follicular mucinosis

FMF: familial Mediterranean fever/folliculotropic mycosis fungoides

FOPT: fibro–osseous pseudotumor

FR: fibroblastic rheumatism

F-RM: fetal rhabdomyoma



GA: granuloma annulare

GCA: giant cell arteritis/giant condylomata acuminata

GEH: generalized eruptive histiocytosis

GH: glomeruloid hemangioma

GMCSF: granulocyte–macrophage colony–stimulating factor

GMS: Gomori methanamine silver

GPA: granulomatosis with polyangiitis

GVHD: graft–versus–host disease

GVM: glomuvenous malformation



HBID: hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis

HCL: hairy cell leukemia

HE: hand eczema

H&E: hematoxylin and eosin

HHD: hyperkeratotic hand dermatitis

HHT: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

HHV-4: human herpesvirus 4

HHV-6: human herpesvirus 6

HHV-7: human herpesvirus 7

HHV-8: human herpesvirus 8

HID: hystrix–like ichthyosis with deafness

HIHS: drug–induced hypersensitivity syndrome

HIV/AIDS: humanimmunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

HLH: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

HMB45: human melanoma black (gp100)

HPC: hemangiopericytoma

HPS: Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome

HPV: human papillomavirus

HPV-OED: human papillomavirus–associated oral epithelial dysplasia

HS: hidradenitis suppurativa

HSV: herpes simplex virus

HTLV-I: human T–cell leukemia virus type I

HUV: hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis

HV: hydroa vacciniforme

HAK: hypertrophic actinic keratosis



IB: infectious balanoposthitis

ICAM-1: intracellular adhesion molecule 1

ICD: irritant contact dermatitis

IEE: intraepidermal/intraepithelial epithelioma of Borst-Jadassohn

IF: indirect immunofluorescence

IFAP: follicular ichthyosis with atrichia and photophobia syndrome

Ig: immunoglobulin

ILVEN: inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus

IPEH: intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia



JXG: juvenile xanthogranuloma



KA: keratoacanthoma

KD: Kawasaki disease/Kyrle disease

KH: kaposiform hemangioendothelioma

KID: keratitis, ichthyosis–like hyperkeratosis, and deafness

KMS: Kasabach–Merritt syndrome

KS: Kaposi sarcoma



LAD: linear IgA disease

LBT: lupus band test

LCH: Langerhans cell histiocytosis

LCV: leukocytoclastic vasculitis

LE: lupus erythematosus

LEC: lymphatic vessel endothelial cell

LELC: lymphoepithelioma–like carcinoma

LGFMS: low–grade fibromyxoid sarcoma

LGV: lymphogranuloma venereum

LI: lamellar ichthyosis

LJSGH: localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia

LM: lymphatic malformation

LMM: lentigo maligna melanoma

LP: lichen planus

LPK: lichen planus-like keratosis

LPD: lymphoproliferative disorder

LPP: lichen planopilaris/lichen planus pemphigoides

LS: lichen sclerosus

LSC: lichen simplex chronicus

LTGCT: localized tenosynovial giant cell tumor

LyP: lymphomatoid papulosis



MAC: microcystic adnexal carcinoma

MADISH: metabolizing acquired dioxin–induced skin hamartoma

MANIAC: melanocytic acral nevus with intraepidermal ascent of cells

MAP: malignant atrophic papulosis

MBAIT: melanocytic BAP1–mutated atypical intradermal tumor

MBN: melanoma arising in blue nevus/malignant blue nevus

MC: mucinous carcinoma

MCTD: mixed connective tissue disease

MDS: myelodysplastic syndrome

Melan-A/MART-1: melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells

MF: mycosis fungoides

MFH: malignant fibrous histiocytoma

MiTF: Melanocyte inducing transcription factor

MLT: multifocal lymphangioendotheliomatosis

MMMT: malignant mixed Müllerian tumor

MPA: microscopic polyangiitis

MPC: myopericytoma

MPCM/UP: maculopapular cutaneous mastocytosis/urticaria pigmentosa

MPD: mammary Paget disease

MPNST: malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

MRH: multicentric reticulohistiocytosis

MSC: metaplastic synovial cyst

MT: mixed tumor of the skin

MTS: Muir–Torre syndrome

MUP: melanomas of unknown primary

MVH: microvenular hemangioma

MZL: marginal zone B–cell lymphoma



NAE: necrolytic acral erythema

NAME: nevi–atrial myxomas–myxoid neurofibromas [cutaneous myxomas]–ephelides

NEH: neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis

NET: neutrophil extracellular trap

NF: necrotizing fasciitis/neurofibroma

NGS: next generation sequencing

NHL: non–Hodgkin lymphoma

NICH: noninvoluting congenital hemangioma

NK cell: natural killer cell

NL: necrobiosis lipoidica

NM: nevoid melanoma/nodular melanoma

NME: necrolytic migratory erythema

NOS: not otherwise specified

NPB: nail plate biopsy

NS: nevus sebaceus

NSF: nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

NUD: neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis

NXG: necrobiotic xanthogranuloma



OIN: oral intraepithelial neoplasia

OLP: oral lichen planus



PAM: primary acquired melanosis

PAM/C-MIN: conjunctival primary acquired melanosis/melanocytic intraepithelial neoplasia

PAMS: paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome

PAN: polyarteritis nodosa

PAPA: pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome

PAPASH: pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome with hidradenitis suppurativa

PAS: periodic acid–Schiff

pcALCL: primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma

PCH: penile cutaneous horn

PCM: plasma cell mucositis

PCR: polymerase chain reaction

PEC: proliferating epithelial cyst

PEH: pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia

PEM: pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma

PEP: polymorphic eruption of pregnancy

PF: perforating folliculitis

PFAPA: periodic fever, adenitis, pharyngitis, aphthae

PG: pyogenic granuloma

PH: papillary hemangioma

PHE: pseudomyogenic hemangioendothelioma

PILA: papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma

PKMB: pseudoepitheliomatous, keratotic, and micaceous balanitis

PLAID: PLC gamma 2–associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation

PLC: pityriasis lichenoides chronica

PLEVA: pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta

PLEXSCN: plexiform spindle cell nevus

PM: pediatric melanoma/pilomatricoma

PNECS: primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin

PNH: progressive nodular histiocytoma

PNP: paraneoplastic pemphigus

PP: palmar psoriasis

PPD: pigmented purpuric dermatosis

PPP: pearly penile papule

PR: pagetoid reticulosis

PRP: pityriasis rubra pilaris

PSA: pilar sheath acanthoma

PSCC: penile squamous cell carcinoma

PSCN: pigmented spindle cell nevus

PSL: pseudolymphoma

PSO: proximal subungual onychomycosis

PSRHC: primary signet ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the skin

PTL: primary cutaneous peripheral T–cell lymphoma

PTT: proliferating tricholemmal tumor/cyst

PUPPP: pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy

PUVA: psoralen and ultraviolet A photochemotherapy

PVPN: pseudoverrucous papules and nodules of infancy

PWSO: proximal white subungual onychomycosis



qPCR: quantitative polymerase chain reaction



RA: reactive arthritis

RAE: reactive angioendotheliomatosis

RAPK: reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura

RASD: reticulated acanthoma with sebaceous differentiation

REM: reticular erythematous mucinosis

RH: retiform hemangioendothelioma

RICH: rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma

RLH: reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

RMS: rhabdomyosarcoma

RMSF: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

RS: Reed–Sternberg

RT-PCR: real–time polymerase chain reaction/reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

RXLI: X–linked recessive ichthyosis



SA: sebaceous adenoma

SADDAN: severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans

SALP: stasis–associated lipomembranous panniculitis

SAP: serum amyloid P

SAV1: sting associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy

SC: sebaceous carcinoma

SCC: squamous cell carcinoma

SCH: spindle cell hemangioma

SCLE: subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

SCL/PL: spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma

SCSCC: spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma

SDM: solitary dermal melanoma

SEDC: squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma

SFT: soft tissue tumor/solitary fibrous tumor

SH: sebaceous hyperplasia

SIN: squamous intraepithelial neoplasia

SJS: Stevens–Johnson syndrome

SL: solar lentigo

SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus

SM: systemic mastocytosis

SMA: smooth muscle actin

SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism

SOX10: SRY-related HMG-box 10

SP: squamous papilloma

SPP: small–plaque parapsoriasis

SPTCL: subcutaneous panniculitis–like T–cell lymphoma

SR: solitary reticulohistiocytoma

SS: Sézary syndrome

SSCP: single–strand DNA conformational polymorphism

SSM: superficial spreading melanoma

SSSS: staphylococcal scalded–skin syndrome

SVV: small–vessel vasculitis



TA: tufted angioma

TB: tuberculosis

TCR: T–cell receptor

TdT: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase

TEN: toxic epidermal necrolysis

TFI: tumor of the follicular infundibulum

TGGE: temperature gradient gel electrophoresis

TGU: telogen germinal unit

THH: targetoid hemosiderotic hemangioma

TMEP: telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans

T-PLL: T–cell prolymphocytic leukemia

TRAPS: TNF receptor–associated periodic syndrome

TSS: toxic shock syndrome

TTM: trichotillomania

TUG: traumatic ulcerative granuloma



uPeIN: usual penile intraepithelial neoplasia

uVeIN: usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia



VH: verrucous hemangioma

VP: vestibular papillomatosis

VSCC: vulvar squamous cell carcinoma

VZV: varicella–zoster virus



WCD: Weber–Christian disease

WDL: well–differentiated liposarcoma

WSO: white superficial onychomycosis

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