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Use of a synthetic or biological product or surgical restructuring for the replacement of volume loss and enhancement of dermal, subcutaneous, and muscular deficiencies that result from trauma, surgical defects, lipoatrophic conditions, photoaging, or chronological aging.


TABLE 3.1Commonly Used Filling Agents

  • Biocompatible

  • Nonimmunogenic

  • Noncarcinogenic, nonteratogenic

  • Nonresorbable

  • Nonmigratory

  • Inexpensive

  • Easily obtained and stored

  • Easy to administer

  • Provides reproducible cosmetically beneficial results

  • FDA approved if not autologous

  • Demonstrates multipurpose use

  • No side effects

  • Easy to remove in the event of a poor cosmetic outcome


  • Identify the appropriate patient and treatment region

    • – Significant past medical history, including history of bleeding or clotting disorders; keloid formation; existing drug allergies; immunocompromised state

    • – Current medication use; past or current isotretinoin use

    • – Past ...

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