Which of the following wavelengths is most appropriate for ablative laser skin resurfacing?
E. Traditional ablative laser skin resurfacing is most commonly accomplished with the 2,940 nm Erbium:YAG and 10,600 nm carbon dioxide lasers.
Which of the following chemical peel agents is most likely to cause cardiac arrhythmias?
D. Cardiac arrhythmias are a potential complication in phenol face peeling. All patients who undergo phenol peels should have cardiac monitoring and careful attention to their fluid status and hydration. Cardiac arrhythmias typically develop during phenol peels when the peeling solution is applied too rapidly resulting in systemic accumulation of excess phenol. To help avoid this problem, individual facial segments (cheeks, forehead, perioral, periorbital, and nose should be treated with at least a 15 minute time delay between them.
Which of the following wavelengths penetrates most deeply into the skin?
D. In general, depth of penetration increases with wavelength, however this is not true for traditional ablative lasers such as the 10,600 nm carbon dioxide laser. The longer infrared laser wavelengths are absorbed efficiently by water in the superficial dermis such that penetration is limited.
Endovascular venous ablation techniques using laser or radio frequency can be most safely applied to which of the following veins?
D. Endovenous laser ablation (ELA) and radio-frequency ablation (RFA) have replaced stripping and ligation as the technique of choice for elimination of saphenous vein reflux. The other veins listed all fall within the deep venous system of the lower extremity.